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ADF  (Automatic Document Feeder)
This is the means by which a scanner feeds the paper document.

Aggregation The process of combining data inputs from different creation and authoring tools and other systems.

AIIM (Association for Information and Image Management) A leading international association that brings together the users and providers of document management technology-based solutions for education, peer networking, professional development and industry advocacy.

Alphanumeric Relating to a character set comprising letters and numbers.

Annotations The changes or additions made to a document using sticky notes, a highlighter, or other electronic tools. Document images or text can be highlighted in different colours, redacted (blacked-out or white-out), stamped (e.g. “FAXED” or “CONFIDENTIAL”), or have electronic sticky notes attached. Annotations should be overlaid and not change the original document.

Aperture Card An 80-column computer card containing an aperture into which a single frame of unexposed or processed 35mm microfilm can be mounted. Index data can also be punched on the card.

ARMA (Association of Records Managers) Not-for-profit association and the leader in education and training for records and information management professionals.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Used to define computer text that was built on a set of 255 alphanumeric and control characters. ASCII is used for the storage of alphanumeric information in most PC and RISC computer systems.

ASP (Application Service Provider) A business that provides computer-based services to customers over a network. Software offered using an ASP model is also sometimes called on-demand software or software as a service (SaaS).

Audit Trails Log of who changed what and when. Used for accountability.



Backfile Conversion
Process of converting files/documents to electronic files that have accumulated over a period of time.

Back-Up A copy of data for storage as an assurance against loss of master data.

Barcode A machine-readable array of vertical lines and spaces representing data. Used in indexing.

BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) A family of high-level programming languages.

Batch Processing The name of the technique used to input a large amount of information in a single step, as opposed to individual processes.

Bitmap/Bitmapped See Raster/Rasterised.

BMP see Raset/Rasterised

Boolean Logic/Searching The use of the terms “AND,” “OR” and “NOT” in conducting searches. Used to widen or narrow the scope of a search.

Briefcase A method to simplify the transport of a group of documents from one computer to another.

Burn (CDs or DVDs) To record or write data on a CD or DVD.

BPA (Business Process Automation) The process a business uses to contain costs. It consists of using software applications and integrating them throughout the organisation while minimising labour costs.

BPM (Business Process Management) Automation of business processes, in whole or in part, where documents, information, or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action, according to a set of rules. A business process is a logically related set of workflows, worksteps, and tasks that provide a product or service to customers.

BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) The contracting of a specific business task, to a third-party service provider. Usually, BPO is implemented as a cost-saving measure for tasks that a company requires but does not depend upon to maintain its position in the marketplace.

Business Process A logically related set of workflows, worksteps, and tasks that provide a product or service to customers. see Workflow


The space used for the temporary storage of data that must be accessed quickly. Usually an area of RAM memory which holds frequently used data from a hard disk.

CAD (Computer-Aided Design) The use of a wide range of computer-based tools that assist engineers, architects and other design professionals in their design activities.

CADD (Computer-Aided Drafting and Design) see CAD

CAS (Content Addressed Storage) A storage methodology designed for rapid access to fixed content. Increasingly used for archiving content. (see SAN)

Categorization Organizing documents, Web pages, and other content into logical groupings, based on their contents.

CD An optical disc used to store digital data.

CDIA (Certified Document Imaging Architect) A credential that validates the knowledge of professionals who deliver document imaging solutions.

CD Publishing An alternative to photocopying large volumes of paper documents. This method involves coupling image and text documents with viewer software on CDs. Sometimes search software is included on the CDs to enhance search capabilities.

CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable) A CD which can be written (or recorded) only once. It can be copied to distribute a large amount of data. CD-Rs can be read on any CD-ROM drive whether on a standalone computer or network system. This makes interchange between systems easier.

CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) Optical disc that is created by a mastering process and used for distributing read-only information. Written on a large scale and not on a standard computer CD burner (CD writer).

CD-ROM Drive A computer drive that reads compact discs.

CD-RW (Compact Disc Rewritable) Disk on which data can be erased and overwritten with new data.

Character A single letter, numeric digit or punctuation mark as defined by ASCII or EBCDIC codes. One character requires 1 byte of storage.

Check In/Out Ensures that only one person can work on a document at any time.

COLD/ERM (Computer Output to Laser Disk/Electronic Report Management)

Collaboration Tools, such as collaborative authouring, video conferencing, shared whiteboards, etc. that allow multiple users to work on the same content in a common environment.

COM (Computer Output to Microfilm) A process that outputs electronic records and computer generated reports to microfilm.

Compound Document A document containing multiple content objects or data types often created on different application software, i.e. not text only or image only. Contrasts with a simple document.

Compression Means of reducing stored image file sizes by reducing the number of bits in a digital image file; JPEG and TIFF are two examples.  

Compression Ratio The ratio of the file sizes of a compressed file to an uncompressed file.

Content Management Increasingly being used as an alternative, technically more accurate, term for an electronic document management system. A set of processes and technologies that support the evolutionary life cycle of digital information. This digital information is often referred to as content or, to be precise, digital content. Digital content may take the form of text, such as documents, multimedia files, such as audio or video files, or any other file type which follows a content lifecycle which requires management.

Content Management System The capability to manage and track the location of, and relationships among, content within a repository.

Conversion Process of converting documents from one form to another, e.g. paper to digital.

CPU (Central Processing Unit) The “brain” of the computer.
Process whereby computer output, such as reports and electronic records, are captured, indexed and stored to optical disk. Can be used to replace COM (Computer Output to Microfilm) or printed reports such as green-bar.



In everyday language is a synonym for information. In the exact sciences there is a clear distinction between data and information, where data is a measurement that can be disorganised and when the data becomes organised it becomes information.

Data Entry The process by which information is keyed into a computer allowing electronic retrieval of the document the information is keyed from.

Data Warehouse Central repository for all, or most, of an organisation's structured data.

Database Electronic collection of records stored in a central file and accessible by many users for many applications. A structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer so that a program can consult it to answer queries quickly and flexibly.

DBMS (Database Management System) A computer software designed for the purpose of managing databases.

Decompression The process which restores files to their original state after they have been compressed.

De-Shading Removing shaded areas to render images more easily recognizable by OCR.

De-Skewing The process of straightening skewed (off-center) images after they are scanned or faxed. De-skewing is one of the image enhancements that can improve OCR accuracy.

De-Speckling Image enhancement technique which allows minor imperfections or speckles in bit-map images to be erased.

Diazo Film A photographic film commonly used for microfilm duplication.

Digital Asset Management Consists of tasks and decisions surrounding ingesting, annotating, cataloguing, storage and retrieval of digital assets, such as digital photographs, animations, videos and music. Digital asset management systems are computer software and/or hardware systems that aid in the process of digital asset management.

Digital Rights Management Enables secure distribution, and disables illegal distribution, of paid content over the Web.

Digital Signature Electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the sender of a message.

Dithering The process of converting greys to different densities of black dots, usually for the purposes of printing or storing colour or greyscale images as black and white images.

Document A collection of data organised into some logical order. Often associated with a specific task. Historically stored as formatted paper pages or frames on microfilm. Digital documents can be stored formatted or in processable form.

Document Imaging Process of capturing paper documents and converting them to a digital format to be stored in a computer file through scanning, OCR, ICR, etc.

Document Management (DM) The method of better managing paper documents to improve efficiencies, share and protect information and reduce costs associated with maintaining paper filing systems. Controls and organises documents throughout an enterprise. Incorporates document and content capture, workflow, document repositories, COLD/ERM and output systems, and information retrieval systems.

Document Management System (DMS) A computer system (or set of computer programs) used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. The term has some overlap with the concepts of Content Management Systems and is often viewed as a component of Enterprise Content Management Systems.

Document Preparation The process of removing staples, paper clips, repairing tears to paper document prior to the imaging process.

Document Retrieval The matching of some stated user query against a set of free-text records. Accessing an image or electronic file.

Document Retrieval Software Software used to search, view, print, fax, and email electronic documents and images from a computer.

Document Scanning Process of capturing paper documents and converting them to a digital format via a scanner.

DOS (Disk Operating System)

Double-Sided Scanning Uses a single-sided scanner to scan double-sided pages, scanning one collated stack of paper, then flipping it over and scanning the other side.

DPI (Dots Per Inch) Measure of image resolution and quality in horizontal and vertical dimensions. Used to define scanner, printer and display screen resolution.

Drag-and-Drop The movement of on-screen objects by dragging them across the screen with the mouse.

Duplex Scanners Automatically scan both sides of a double-sided page, producing two images at once.

DVD(Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) A plastic disc, like a CD, on which digital video, audio, data, and images can be written, stored and read. DVDs are faster, can hold more information storing at least six to seven times more data due to use of finer pits and more closely spaced tracks, and can support more data formats than CDs. Available in read-only, recordable, and rewritable formats. Single or dual sided disks are available as well as single or dual layer. Single-sided, single-layer disks have a capacity of 4.7GB.




(Electronic Document Management System) (see Document Management System)

E-Forms/Web Forms Forms designed, managed, and processed completely in an electronic environment.

Electronic Document Management (EDM) See Document Management (DM).

Email (Electronic Mail) Method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. The term "e-mail" (as a noun or verb) applies both to the Internet e-mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and to intranet systems allowing users within one organisation to e-mail each other.

Enterprise Content Management (ECM) is the technologies, tools, and methods used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content across an enterprise.

Erasable Optical Drive A type of optical drive that uses erasable optical discs.

ERM (Electronic Records Management) The practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving, and destroying records. The ISO 15489: 2001 standard defines it as "The field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of records, including the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records".

ERMS (Electronic Records Management System)

ERPS (Enterprise Resource Planning Systems) Integrate (or attempt to integrate) all data and processes of an organisation into a unified system.



The smallest logical unit of data in a database record, i.e. fields in an index record.

File All the data comprising a document or part of a document (page image) held under a single naming code.

File Formatting The criteria used to format a file.. comma quote delimited, fixed length, etc.

File System The way in which files are named and where they are placed logically for storage and retrieval, most commonly in a hierarchical (tree) structure.

Filebound An affordable content management solution that helps manage business-critical information created from disparate sources and stored in different forms, such as paper documents, digital files, e-mail, website input and many others.  It allows for the fast and seamless integration of information from various sources, directly into core business applications and operating platforms (such as Windows) for a comprehensive Content Management solution.

Firewall A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN (Local Area Network) into two or more parts for security purposes.

Flatbed Scanner A flat-surface scanner that allows users to input books and other documents.

Folder Browser A system of on-screen folders (usually hierarchical or “stacked”) used to organise documents. For example, the File Manager program in Microsoft Windows is a type of folder browser that displays the directories on your disk.

Forms Processing A specialised imaging application designed for handling pre-printed forms. Forms processing systems often use high-end (or multiple) OCR engines and elabourate data validation routines to extract hand-written or poor quality print from forms that go into a database.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Mechanism for transferring data files over the Internet.

Full-Text Indexing and Search Enables the retrieval of documents by either their word or phrase content. Every word in the document is indexed into a master word list with pointers to the documents and pages where each occurrence of the word appears.

Fuzzy Logic A full-text search procedure that looks for exact matches as well as similarities to the search criteria, in order to compensate for spelling or OCR errors.



GIF (Graphics Interchange File Format)
Display and exchange for high-quality/resolution graphics.

Gigabyte One billion bytes or one thousand megabytes. In terms of image storage capacity, one gigabyte equals approximately 25,000 81/2” x 11” pages scanned at 200 DPI.

Greyscale See “Scale-to-Grey.”

GUI (Graphical User Interface) A type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called "widgets", along with text, labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to a user. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.



Hard Disk
A non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces.

Handprint Character Recognition (HCR) OCR technology designed to turn images of handprint characters into ASCII code.

Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) Software that automatically migrates files from on-line to near-line storage media, usually on the basis of the age or frequency of use of the files.

HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) Enacted by the U.S.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Predominant markup language for the creation of web pages.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) A communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web.
Congress in 1996. Title II, the Administrative Simplification (AS) provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers. The AS provisions also address the security and privacy of health data.



ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition)
A software process that recognizes handwritten and printed text as alphanumeric characters. Advanced form of OCR technology that may include capabilities such as learning fonts during processing or using context to strengthen probabilities of correct recognition or that can recognize handprint characters.

Image Processing The manipulation of digital images after they have been scanned and digitized. Includes rotation, zoom, enhancement, analysis, etc.

Image Enabling Allows for fast, straight forward document link through any third-party application.

Image Processing Card (IPC) A board mounted in either the computer, scanner or printer that facilitates the acquisition and display of images. The primary function of most IPCs is the rapid compression and decompression of image files.

Image Resolution Measure of image quality. Defined as dots per inch (dpi) e.g. 200dpi.

ImageSilo® An ultra-secure, redundant, off-site Web browser-based data and content management repository that allows instant retrieval and delivery of data, images and e-files anywhere, anytime, 24x7.

ImageVault A network storage device used to house scanned images for easy retrieval via LAN, WAN or Net.

Imaging Process of capturing paper documents and converting them to a digital format to be stored in a computer file through scanning, OCR, ICR, etc.

Index A system used to make finding information easier. Descriptive data that enables desired information to be retrieved.

Index Fields Database fields used to categorise and organise documents. Often user-defined, these fields can be used for searches.

Indexing Identification of specific attributes of a document or database record to facilitate retrieval.

Information Retrieval (IR) The science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases.

Instant Messaging (IM) A form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. The text is conveyed via computers connected over a network such as the Internet.

Input Designs Templates used to enable authors to more easily enter content into a system, typically customised, based on the type and format of content to be entered.

Intelligent Document Recognition automatically identifies document types from the layout and structure of the document.

Internet Publishing Specialised imaging software that allows large volumes of paper documents to be published on the Internet or intranet. These files can be made available to other departments, offsite colleagues or the public for searching, viewing and printing.

ISIS and TWAIN Scanner Drivers Specialised applications used for communication between scanners and computers.

ISO 9660 CD Format The International Standards Organisation format for creating CD-ROMs that can be read worldwide.

ISP  (Internet Service Provider) A business or organisation that provides to consumers access to the Internet and related services.

IT (Information Technology) The study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely.



J2EE (Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition)

Jacket (microfilm) Unitised microform comprising two layers of clear, flexible plastic bonded or welded together to form channels into which strips of 16mm or 35mm film can be inserted. Commonly used in applications where there is a need to update files periodically.

JFIF (JPG File Interchange Format) What people generally mean when they refer to "JPEG". It is a file format created by the Independent JPEG Group (IJG) for the transport of single JPEG-compressed images.

JPEG or JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) An image compression format used for storing colour photographs and images.

Jukebox A mass storage device that holds optical disks and loads them into a drive.



Unique identifiers such as ID numbers, file references, etc. logically associated with an image document and used as index information.

Key Field Database fields used for document searches and retrieval. Synonymous with “index field.”

Keyword A significant word in a document that helps to define the content of the document.

KM (Knowledge Management) Comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning. Often a part of Information Management.



LAN (Local Area Network) A
computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings.



Magnetic Storage
Referring to the storage of data on a magnetised medium from hard disks on down to floppies.

Magneto Optical (MO) Recording data using a combination of magnetic and optical means to change the polarity of a magnetic field in the recording medium. Data is erasable and/or rewritable.

Magneto-Optical Drive A drive that combines laser and magnetic technology to create high-capacity erasable storage.

MAPI (Mail Application Program Interface) This Windows software standard has become a popular e-mail interface and is used by MS Exchange, GroupWise, and other e-mail packages.

Match and Merge Uses index information that already exists in other systems to populate indexing fields. It allows you to index 1 (or many, depending on how many fields it takes to create a unique identifier) unique field and populate the remaining fields with a text file (or table lookup) provided from a different source.

Metadata Data associated with documents to provide information on their contents, context and use.

MFP (Multifunction Printer or Multifunctional Peripheral) A device that performs any combination of scanning, printing, faxing, or copying.

MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) A technique for the automatic recognition of stylised characters printed with a magnetic ink.

Microfiche Sheet of microfilm containing an array of micro-images arranged in accordance with a standard grid, e.g. 7 rows and 14 columns, and usually including an eye-legible title along the top edge.

Microfilm High-resolution photographic film suitable for recording micro-images of documents. Often used to refer to microfilm in roll format, e.g. 16mm microfilm.



(Network Attached Storage) Uses file-based protocols such as NFS or SMB/CIFS where it is clear that the storage is remote, and computers request a portion of an abstract file rather than a disk block. Can be part of a SAN. Hard disk storage directly attached to the network to provide information access.

Near-Line Documents stored on optical disks or compact disks that are housed in the jukebox or CD changer and can be retrieved without human intervention.

NT (Network Technology) Refers to Microsoft Windows NT server and workstation software.



OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
Technique by which images of characters can be machine-identified, then converted into computer processable codes. Technique for analysing images and recognising and translating the alphanumeric characters into machine-readable text. OCR is used for type. See also ICR.

ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) Standard for linking client workstation with server database.

Off-Line Archival documents stored on optical disks or compact disks that are not connected or installed in the computer, but instead require human intervention to be accessed.

OMR (Optical Mark Recognition) Detects presence, or absence, of marks in defined areas; used for processing questionnaires, standardised tests, etc.

On-Line Documents stored on the hard drive or magnetic disk of a computer that are available immediately.

Open Source A set of principles and practices that promote access to the design and production of goods and knowledge. The term is most commonly applied to the source code of software that is available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent intellectual property restrictions. This allows users to create software content through incremental individual effort or through collaboration.

Optical Disks Computer media similar to a compact disc that cannot be rewritten. Data is recorded by the user once (and is unalterable) and can be read many times. An optical drive uses a laser to read the stored data. Primarily WORM (Write-Once, Read-Many).

Optical Jukebox See “Jukebox.”

Outsourcing The delegation of non-core operations from internal production to an external entity specialising in the management of that operation.



P2P (Peer-to-Peer)
A communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session. Contrasted with the Client/server relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program, the server, which fulfills the request.

Paper Medium for capturing information. Easily lost, misplaced and misfiled.

PaperFlow™ A powerful, fully-automated document capture and indexing system from Digitech Systems.

Paperless Office An environment in which there is minimal paper and all forms of documentation are theoretically converted to a digital form. The ideal is driven by a number of motivators including productivity gains, costs savings, space saving and the need to share information.

PaperVision™ Enterprise The core application of the Digitech product suite. This robust data management system stores, manages, retrieves, tracks and distributes electronic documents and content easily and cost-effectively.

PDF (Portable Document Format) Electronic replica of a document. Unlike pure image formats like TIFFs, PDFs permit content searches, the addition of metadata, and the embedding of electronic signatures. Enables the platform-independent presentation of information. Developed by Adobe Systems for document publication.

PDF/A  (PDF/Archive)

Personalization -Matching content to the individual.

Phase Change A method of storing information on rewritable optical disks.

Pixel Picture Element. A single dot in an image. It can be black and white, greyscale or colour.

Planetary Camera Type of microfilm camera on which the document is placed on a fixed copyboard and microfilmed using a camera head supported above (usually) the copyboard. The document and the film remain statuary during the exposure.

Portable Volumes A feature that facilitates the moving of large volumes of documents without requiring copying multiple files. Portable volumes enable individual CDs to be easily regrouped, detached and reattached to different databases for a broader information exchange.

PPM (Pages per Minute) Number of pages that can be scanned in one minute



(Quality control) The process by which data and images are checked manually and automatically for accuracy, integrity, clarity and completeness.



RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Drives)
An umbrella term for data storage schemes that divide and/or replicate data among multiple hard drives. Storing the same data on multiple hard disks or drives improves performance and fault tolerance. Files on RAID drives can be duplicated (“mirrored”) to preserve data. RAID systems vary in levels of redundancy, with no redundancy being a single, non-mirrored disk as level 0, two disks that mirror each other as level 1, on up to level 5, the most common.

RAM (Random Access Memory) The place in a computer where the operating system, application programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can be quickly reached by the computer's processor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than the other kinds of storage in a computer, the hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM. However, the data in RAM stays there only as long as your computer is running. When you turn the computer off, RAM loses its data.

Raster/Rasterised (Raster or Bitmap Drawing) A method of representing an image with a grid (or “map”) of dots or pixels. Typical raster file formats are GIF, JPEG, TIFF, PCX, BMP, etc.

RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) A database management system in which data is stored in the form of tables and the relationship among the data is also stored in the form of tables. Most common form of database used today.

Reader-Printer A type of microfilm reader equipped with a printing capability able to produce a paper copy of the image displayed on the viewing screen.

Record Any piece of information created or received and maintained by an organisation or person in the course of their business or conduct of affairs and kept as evidence of such activity.

Records Management Enables an enterprise to assign a specific life cycle to individual pieces of corporate information from creation, receipt, maintenance, and use to the ultimate disposition of records. A record is not necessarily the same as a document. All documents are potential records, but not vice versa. A record is essential for the business; documents are containers of "working information." Records are documents with evidentiary value.  The function of managing records is to meet organisational needs, business efficiency and legal and financial accountability.

Redaction A type of document annotation that provides word-level security by concealing from view specific portions of sensitive documents. Like all annotations in a document imaging system, redactions should be image overlays that protect information but do not alter original document images.

Region (of an image) An area of an image file that is selected for specialised processing. Also called a “Zone.”

Repositories A place where electronic data, images and files are stored and maintained. Part of a Document Management system with specific functionality to control the check-in/out and distribution of material, version control, and look-up against defined attributes. 

Resolution Defines the clarity and information content of a bit-map. Often measured in dots per inch (dpi) and commonly used as part of the specification of printers, scanners and computer displays.

Retrieval Procedure for searching for and extracting database records or content

ROI (Return-On-Investment) A method of calculating the pay back period for an investment. The ROI of a Document Management is substantially less than the ROI of other IT investments.

ROM (Read-Only Memory)  “Built-in" computer memory containing data that normally can only be read, not written to. ROM contains the programming that allows a computer to be "booted up" or regenerated each time it is turned on. Unlike a computer's random access memory (RAM), the data in ROM is not lost when the computer power is turned off. The ROM is sustained by a small long-life battery in your computer.

Rotary Camera A type of microfilm camera in which the document is transported round a roller and imaged as it passes through the camera. The film is moved during exposure in synchronisation with the movement of the document.

RTF (Rich Text Format) A proprietary document file format used for cross-platform document interchange.



Safe Harbor
A framework developed by the U.S. Department of Commerce in consultation with the European Commission to provide a streamlined means for U.S. organisations to comply with the European Commission’s Directive on Data Protection.

SAN (Storage Area Network) A high-speed network that connects computer systems and storage elements and allows movement of data between computer systems and storage elements and among storage elements.

Software as a Service (SaaS) A software application delivery model where a software vendor develops a web-native software application and hosts and operates (either independently or through a third-party) the application for use by its customers over the Internet. Customers pay not for owning the software itself but for using it.

SAS 70 (Statement on Auditing Standards No. 70) Defines the professional standards used by a service auditor to assess the internal controls of a service organisation and issue a service auditor’s report.  Issued by the Auditing Standards Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).

Scale-to-Grey An option to display a black and white image file in an enhanced mode, making it easier to view. A scale-to-grey display uses grey shading to fill in gaps or jumps (known as aliasing) that occur when displaying an image file on a computer screen. Also known as greyscale.

Scalability The capacity of a system to expand without requiring major reconfiguration or re-entry of data. Multiple servers or additional storage can be easily added.

Scanner A device for converting analogue documents, e.g. paper or microfilm, into digital form for entry into a computer. Special scanners are available to capture large format documents, transparent originals such as microforms, and bound material such as books.

Scanning See Document Scanning

SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) Pronounced “skuzzi.” A standard for attaching peripherals (notably mass storage devices and scanners) to computers. SCSI allows for up to 7 devices to be attached in a chain via cables.

SCSI Scanner Interface The device used to connect a scanner with a computer.

Service Bureau A company that provides outsourcing services related to document and electronic management and employs industry professionals.

SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) Defines the design of the integration layer among vendor-supplied and organisationally-developed business systems so as to "loosely couple" these systems in such a way that the solution can be assembled with minimal concern for platform technologies and the internal design of participating systems.

SLA (Service Level Agreement) That part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined.

SQL (Structured Query Language) A method of searching and retrieving information from database systems with the objective of creating a common means of accessing data from different databases and of transferring data between databases.

SRM (Storage Resource Management) Identifies under-utilised capacity, identifies old or non-critical data that could be moved to less-expensive storage, and helps predict future capacity requirements.

Syndication Supply of content for reuse and integration with other material, often through a paid subscription.



A magnetic storage media. Standard widths are 8mm, 1/8-inch, 1/4-inch, 1/2-inch, 4mm DAT (Digital Audio Tape), and DLT (Digital Linear Tape) in either rolls or cassettes.

TCO (Total Cost of Ownership)

TCP/IP Network communications protocol. This is the protocol used by the Internet.

Terabyte (TB) A measurement term for data storage capacity. Defined as one trillion bytes, or 1000 gigabytes.

Text/Image Retrieval A facility that allows full/free text retrieval techniques to locate and retrieve document images.

Thumbnails Small versions of an image used for quick overviews or to get a general idea of what an image looks like.

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) De facto standard for imaging. Generally used for imaging of general office documents. Allows for several different types of compression. TIFFs may be either single or multi-page files. A single-page TIFF is a single image of one page of a document. A multi-page TIFF is a large single file consisting of multiple document pages. Used for fax and scanned images.

TIFF Group III (compression) A one-dimensional compression format for storing black and white images that is utilised by most fax machines.

TIFF Group IV (compression) A two-dimensional compression format for storing black and white images. Typically compresses at a 20-to-1 ratio for standard business documents.

Transformation Changing content from one format to the needed delivery format.

Turn-Key Document Scanning System A scanning system with installation, training and support provided by the vendor.



UI (User Interface)
The aggregate of means by which people (the users) interact with a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool (the system). The user interface provides means of: Input, allowing the users to manipulate a system Output, allowing the system to produce the effects of the users' manipulation.

URI (Uniform Resource Identifiers) Short strings that identify resources in the Web, e.g. documents, images, downloadable files, services, electronic mailboxes, and other resources. They make resources available under a variety of naming schemes and access methods, such as http, ftp and Internet mail, addressable in the same simple way.



VAR (Value Added Reseller)
A company that adds value to an existing product(s), then resells it (usually to end-users) as an integrated product or complete "turn-key" solution. This value can come from professional services such as integrating, customizing, consulting, training and implementation. The value can also be added by developing a specific application for the product designed for the customer's needs which is then resold as a new package.

Version Control Procedures to identify the authorship and the sequence of different versions of a document.

Video Scanner Interface A type of device used to connect scanners with computers.

Visual Basic An extension of Basic which takes advantage of the graphical capabilities of modern systems. Predominantly used with PCs.



WAN (Wide Area Network) A
computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) An open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. Its principal application is to enable access to the Internet from a mobile phone or PDA.

Web 2.0 Refers to a perceived second generation of web-based communities and hosted services — such as social-networking sites and wikis — which facilitate collabouration and sharing between users.

Web Based Document Imaging A document imaging system accessed via the internet.

Web Content Management (WCM) A technology that addresses the content creation, review, approval, and publishing processes of Web-based content.

WebDAV (Web Document Authoring and Versioning)

Wildcard Non-specific searching term primarily used in text or text field searching as a substitute for characters or words.

WIP (Work in Progress) Work or a process not yet completed.

WML (Wireless Markup Language) A content format for devices that implement the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) specification, such as mobile phones, and preceded the use of other markup languages now used with WAP, such as XHTML and even standard HTML.

Workflow, Ad Hoc A simple manual process by which documents can be moved around a multi-user imaging system on an “as-needed” basis.

Workflow/BPM (Business Process Management) Automation of business processes, in whole or in part, where documents, information, or tasks are passed from one participant to another for action, according to a set of rules. A Business Process is a logically related set of workflows, worksteps, and tasks that provide a product or service to customers. BPM is a mix of Process Management/Workflow with Application Integration technology.

Workflow, Rule-Based A programmed series of automated steps that route documents to various users on a multi-user imaging system.

WORM (Write Once, Read Many) Refers to a kind of computer storage media that can be written to once, but read from multiple times.

WORM Disks (Write Once Read Many Disks) Primarily used to store archives of data that cannot be altered. WORM disks are created by standalone PCs and cannot be used on the network, unlike CD-Rs.



XML (Extensible Markup Language)
An established standard, based on the Standard Generalized Markup Language, designed to facilitate document construction from standard data items. Also used as a generic data exchange mechanism. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different information systems, particularly via the Internet.  

XQL (XML Query Language)



A common file compression format that allows quick and easy storage for transport. ZIP applications allow the compression of any kind of data for transfer.

Zone OCR An add-on feature of the imaging software that populates document templates by reading certain regions or zones of a document, and then placing the text into a document index field.

Zoom To enlarge a portion of an image to view it more clearly.



AIIM E-DOC Magazine: Acronym Mania “What does that acronym stand for?” Sept. 2004 Theresa M. Resek
ANSI/AIIM TR02 1998 - Glossary of Document Technologies


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